Many of the problems of Asia and Africa are due to the absurd way states were lumped together by the colonial powers. The folly of the left is that it can make Nationalism irrelevant.
Sudan is the ultimate example of people who loathe each other being lumped together for no sane reason. Arabs and Blacks have a history of annimosity but some colonial paper pusher placed them together with tragic results.
There are many available options such as local autonomy or a type of statism. There is the example of the peaceful Chech Slovak split. Individual countries may opt for different solutions.
Nationalism is real and is not going away.